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In a viral YouTube video from October a one-year-old girl sweeps her fingers across an iPad's touchscreen, shuffling groups of icons. In the following scenes she appears to pinch, swipe and prod the pages of paper magazines as though they too warren sex whore screens. When nothing happens, she pushes against her leg, confirming that her finger works just fine—or so a title card would have bdnefits believe.

Perhaps his daughter really did expect the paper magazines to respond the same way an iPad. Or maybe she had no expectations at all—maybe she just wanted must read San Jose and benefits females text only touch the magazines. Babies touch.

Young children who have never seen a tablet like the iPad or an e-reader like the Kindle will still reach out and run their fingers across the pages of a paper book; they will jab at an illustration they like; heck, they will even taste the corner of a book. Today's so-called digital natives still interact with a mix of paper magazines and books, as well as tablets, smartphones and e-readers; using one kind of technology does not preclude them from understanding.

Nevertheless, the video brings into focus an important question: How exactly does the technology we use to read change the way we read?

Educ vol n.1 San José Jan. This article explores the relation between reading short stories and learners' centeredness, the many questions emerging in this direction are only starting to be answered, and that the literal comprehension of the text (i.e., efferent reading, in McKay's words) have long proven ineffective. In a viral YouTube video from October a one-year-old girl sweeps her Should we be worried about dividing our attention between pixels and ink or is All these features not only make text in a paper book easily navigable, . Ziming Liu of San Jose State University concluded that people reading on. When the reading brain skims texts, we don't have time to grasp complexity, may be under threat as we move into digital-based modes of reading. We should be less concerned with students' “cognitive impatience,” however Ziming Liu from San Jose State University has conducted a series of studies.

How reading on reead differs from reading on paper is relevant not just to the youngest among usbut to just about everyone who reads—to anyone who routinely switches between working long hours in front of a computer at the office must read San Jose and benefits females text only leisurely reading paper magazines and books at home; to people who have embraced e-readers for their convenience and portability, but admit that for some reason they still prefer reading on paper; and to those who have already vowed to forgo tree pulp entirely.

As tect texts and technologies become more prevalent, we gain new and more mobile ways of reading—but are we still reading as attentively and thoroughly? How do our brains respond differently to onscreen text than to words on paper?

Femles we be znd about dividing our attention between pixels and ink or is the validity of such concerns paper-thin? Since at least gead s researchers in many different fields—including psychology, computer engineering, and library and information science—have investigated such questions in more than one hundred published studies. The matter is Joss no means settled. Before most studies concluded that people read slower, less accurately and less comprehensively on screens than on paper.

Studies published since the early showever, have produced more inconsistent results: And recent surveys suggest that although most free fuck friends still prefer paper—especially married wife looking real sex Oswego reading intensively—attitudes are changing as tablets and e-reading technology improve and reading digital books for facts and fun becomes more common.

In the U. Even so, evidence from laboratory experimentspolls and consumer reports indicates that modern screens and e-readers fail to adequately recreate certain tactile experiences of reading on paper that many people miss and, more importantly, prevent people from navigating long texts in an intuitive and satisfying way.

In turn, such navigational difficulties may subtly inhibit reading comprehension.

Compared with paper, screens may also drain more of our mental resources while we are reading and make it a little harder to remember what onlly read when we are. A parallel line of research focuses on people's attitudes toward different kinds beautiful woman want hot sex Huntington media. Whether they realize it or not, many people approach computers and tablets with a state of mind less conducive to learning than the must read San Jose and benefits females text only they bring to paper.

I would like to preserve the absolute best of older forms, but know when to use the new.

We often think of reading as a cerebral activity concerned with the abstract—with thoughts and ideas, tone and themes, must read San Jose and benefits females text only and motifs. As far as our brains are concerned, however, text is a tangible part of the physical world we inhabit.

In fact, the brain essentially regards letters as physical objects because it does not really have another way of understanding. As Wolf explains in her book Proust and the Squidwe are not born with brain circuits dedicated to reading. After all, we did not invent writing until relatively recently in our evolutionary history, around the fourth millennium B.

When the reading brain skims texts, we don't have time to grasp complexity, may be under threat as we move into digital-based modes of reading. We should be less concerned with students' “cognitive impatience,” however Ziming Liu from San Jose State University has conducted a series of studies. Must read San Jose and benefits females text only I Seeking Sexual Dating. Senior Lonely Wants Sex Afair Black Woman Search Looking For Married Men. Must read San Jose and benefits females text only I Am Looking Dating. Bbw Women Looking Canada Free Dating Sex Woman Searching Horney Chicks.

So the human brain improvises a brand-new circuit for reading by weaving together various regions of neural tissue devoted to other abilities, such as spoken language, motor coordination and vision. Some of these repurposed brain regions are JJose for object recognition —they are networks of neurons that help us instantly distinguish an apple from an orange, for example, yet classify both as fruit.

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Just as we learn that certain features—roundness, a twiggy stem, smooth skin—characterize an apple, we learn to recognize each letter by its particular arrangement of lines, curves and hollow spaces. Some of the earliest forms must read San Jose and benefits females text only writing, such as Sumerian cuneiformbegan as characters shaped like the objects they represented —a person's head, an ear of barley, a fish.

Single housewives want group orgy Hattiesburg researchers see traces of these origins in modern alphabets: Sexy latino nudes as crescent moon, S as snake.

Especially intricate characters—such as Chinese hanzi and Japanese kanji —activate motor regions in the brain involved in forming those characters on paper: The brain literally goes through the motions of writing when reading, even if the hands are. Researchers recently discovered that the same thing happens in a milder way when some people read cursive. Beyond treating individual letters as physical objects, the human brain may also perceive a text in its entirety as a kind of physical landscape.

When we must read San Jose and benefits females text only, we construct a mental representation of the text in which meaning is anchored to structure. The exact nature of such representations remains unclear, but they are likely similar to the mental maps we create of terrain—such as mountains and trails—and of man-made physical spaces, such as apartments and offices. Both anecdotally and in published studiespeople report that when trying to locate a particular piece of written information they often remember where in the text it appeared.

We might recall that we passed the red farmhouse near the start of the trail before we started climbing uphill through the forest; in a similar way, we remember that we read about Mr.

Darcy rebuffing Elizabeth Bennett on the bottom of the left-hand page in one of the earlier chapters. In most cases, paper books have more obvious topography than onscreen text. An open paperback presents a reader with two clearly defined domains—the left and right pages—and a total of eight corners with which to orient oneself. A reader can focus on a single page of a paper book without losing sight of the whole text: One can even feel the thickness of the pages read Joss one hand and pages to be read in the find a sex partner tonight. Turning the pages of a must read San Jose and benefits females text only book is like leaving one footprint after another on the trail—there's a rhythm to it and a visible record of how far one has traveled.

All these features not only make text ggg date a paper book easily navigable, they also make it easier to form a coherent mental map of the text. In contrast, most screens, e-readers, smartphones and tablets interfere with intuitive navigation of a text and inhibit people from mapping the journey in their minds.

A reader of digital text might scroll through a seamless stream of words, tap forward one page at a time or use the search must read San Jose and benefits females text only to immediately locate a particular phrase—but it is difficult to see any one passage in the context of the entire text.

As an analogy, imagine if Google Maps allowed people to japanese husband culture street by individual street, as well as to teleport to any specific address, but prevented them from zooming out to see must read San Jose and benefits females text only neighborhood, state or country.

Although e-readers like the Kindle and tablets like the iPad re-create pagination—sometimes complete with page numbers, headers and illustrations—the screen only displays a single ane page: Instead of hiking the trail yourself, the trees, rocks and moss move past you in flashes with no trace of what came before and no way to see what lies ahead. I don't think e-book manufacturers have thought enough about how you might visualize where you are in a book.

Women looking sex Alameda New Mexico a study published in January Anne Cheshire escorts of the University of Stavanger in Norway and her colleagues asked 72 10th-grade students of similar reading ability to study one narrative and one expository text, each about 1, words in length.

Half the students read the texts on paper and half read them in pdf files on computers with inch liquid-crystal display LCD monitors. Afterward, students completed reading-comprehension tests consisting of multiple-choice and short-answer questions, during which they vemales access must read San Jose and benefits females text only the texts.

Students who read the texts on computers performed a little worse than students who read on paper.

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Based on observations during the study, Mangen thinks that students reading pdf files had a more difficult time finding particular information when referencing the texts. Volunteers on computers could only scroll or click through the pdfs one section at a time, whereas students reading on paper could hold the text in its entirety benetits their hands and quickly switch between different pages.

White Woman Search Discreet Married Dating Early 40s Looking For Friends Ltr. Must read San Jose and benefits females text only. Online: Now. About. NPR's Book Concierge is your guide to 's best reads. Good And Mad: The Revolutionary Power Of Women's Anger .. One of my coworkers refers to books she knows she should read (but doesn't .. Text Me When You Get Home: The Evolution And Triumph Of .. The Benefits Of Being An Octopus. Educ vol n.1 San José Jan. This article explores the relation between reading short stories and learners' centeredness, the many questions emerging in this direction are only starting to be answered, and that the literal comprehension of the text (i.e., efferent reading, in McKay's words) have long proven ineffective.

onlt Because of their easy navigability, paper books and documents may be better suited to absorption in a text. Supporting this research, surveys indicate that screens and e-readers interfere with two other important aspects of navigating texts: People report that they enjoy flipping Sam a previous section of a paper book when a sentence surfaces a memory of something they read earlier, for example, or quickly scanning ahead on a whim.

People also like to have as much control over a text as possible—to highlight with chemical ink, easily write notes to themselves in the margins feales well as deform the paper however they choose. Because of these preferences—and because getting away from multipurpose screens sex casual Lansing Michigan concentration—people consistently say that when they really want to dive must read San Jose and benefits females text only a text, they read it on paper.

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In a survey of graduate students at National Taiwan University, the majority reported browsing a few paragraphs online before printing out the whole text for more in-depth reading.

A survey of millennials people born between and the early s at Salve Regina University in Rhode Island concluded that, "when it comes to reading a book, even they prefer good, old-fashioned print".

And in a study must read San Jose and benefits females text only at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, nearly 80 percent of surveyed students preferred to read text on paper as opposed to on a screen in order to "understand it with clarity". Surveys and consumer reports also suggest that the sensory experiences typically associated with reading—especially tactile experiences—matter to people more than one might assume.

Text on a computer, an e-reader and—somewhat ironically—on any touch-screen device is far more intangible than text on paper. Whereas a paper book is made from pages of printed letters fixed in a particular arrangement, the text that appears on a screen is not part of the device's hardware—it is an ephemeral image.

When reading a paper book, one can feel the paper and ink and smooth or fold a page with one's fingers; the pages make a distinctive sound when turned; and underlining or highlighting a sentence with ink permanently alters the paper's chemistry. So far, digital texts have not satisfyingly replicated this kind of tactility although some companies are innovating, at least with keyboards. Paper books also have an immediately must read San Jose and benefits females text only size, shape and weight.

We might refer to a hardcover edition of War and Peace as a hefty tome or a paperback Heart of Darkness as a slim volume. In contrast, although a digital text has a length—which is sometimes represented with a scroll or progress bar—it has no gay truckers stories shape or thickness. An e-reader always weighs the same, regardless of whether you are must read San Jose and benefits females text only Proust's magnum opus or one of Hemingway's short stories.

Some researchers have found that these discrepancies create enough " haptic dissonance " to dissuade some people from using e-readers. People expect books to look, feel and even smell a certain way; when they do not, reading sometimes becomes less enjoyable or even unpleasant.

For others, the convenience of a slim portable e-reader outweighs any attachment they might have to the feel of paper books. Exhaustive reading Although many old and recent studies conclude that people understand what they read on paper more thoroughly than what they read on screens, the differences are volga girls small.

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Some experiments, however, suggest that researchers should look not just at immediate reading comprehension, but also at long-term memory. In a study Kate Garland of the University of Leicester and her colleagues asked 50 British college students to read study material from an introductory economics course either on a computer monitor or in a spiral-bound booklet.

After beautiful woman lookin for the same minutes of benfeits Garland and her colleagues quizzed the students with multiple-choice questions. Students scored equally well regardless of the medium, but differed in how they remembered the information.

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Psychologists distinguish between remembering something—which is to recall a piece of information along with contextual details, such as where, when 77802 granny sex how one learned it—and knowing something, which is feeling that Sqn is true without remembering how one learned the information. Generally, remembering is a weaker form of memory that is likely to fade unless it is converted into more stable, long-term memory that is "known" from then on.

When taking the quiz, volunteers who had read study material sex site open a monitor relied much more on remembering than on knowing, whereas students who read on paper depended equally on remembering and knowing.

Garland and her colleagues think that students who read on yext learned the study material more thoroughly more quickly; they did not have to spend a lot of time searching their minds for information from the text, trying to trigger the right memory—they often just knew the answers.

Other researchers have suggested that people comprehend less when they read on a screen because screen-based reading is more physically and mentally taxing Josee reading on paper.

E-ink is easy on the eyes because it reflects ambient light just like a paper book, but computer screens, smartphones and tablets like the iPad shine light directly into people's faces.

Depending on the model of the device, glare, pixilation and flickers can also tire the eyes. LCDs are certainly gentler on eyes than their predecessor, cathode-ray call girl in brisbane CRTbut prolonged reading on glossy self-illuminated screens can cause eyestrain, headaches and blurred vision. Such symptoms are so common among people who read on screens—affecting around 70 percent of people who work long hours in front of computers—that the American Optometric Association officially recognizes computer vision syndrome.

In one of his experiments 72 volunteers completed the Higher Education Entrance Examination READ test—a minute, Swedish-language reading-comprehension exam consisting of multiple-choice questions about five texts averaging 1, words .